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Didactic literature, Sanskrit–Translations into English. friendly advice and king v´ıkrama’s adventures ¯a, ¯a (i.e., the same) ¯ı, ¯ı (i.e., the same) ¯u, ¯u (i.e., the same) ¯e, ¯ı ¯o, ¯u ¯ai, ai ¯au, au ’, before sandhi there was a vowel a further help with vowel sandhi When a final short vowel (a, i or u) has merged into a following vowel, we print ’ at the end of the word, and when a final long vowel (¯a, ¯ı or ¯u) has merged into a following vowel we print ” at the end of the word. One day he heard someone recite the following two verses: “Learning resolves countless doubts and reveals what is beyond perception. It is better to have only one who maintains his family and makes his father famous. friendly advice r.n.a Akart¯a pit¯a ´satrur, m¯at¯a ca vyabhic¯arin.¯ı,0.25 bh¯ary¯a r¯upavat¯ı ´satruh., putrah.

When we print initial ˆa, before sandhi that vowel was a ˆı or ˆe, i ˆu or ˆo, u ˆai, e ˆau, o 13 13. varam ¯adyau, na c’ ˆantimah.;0.15 sakr.d Akar¯av ¯ady¯av, antimas tu pade pade. A king named Handsome once lived there, possessing all the qualities a ruler should. Who is fortunate to have many sons, if they are like measures of grain that fill up the store-house?

Story 11 The Spendthrift Heir and the Woman Tormented by an Ogre 628 Story 12 V´ıkrama’s Lavishness 632 Story 13 V´ıkrama Helps the Spirit of a Brahmin 634 Story 14 An Ascetic Warns V´ıkrama against the Neglect of Kingly Duty 636 Story 15 The Nymph and the Cauldron of Boiling Oil 638 Story 16 The Spring Festival 640 Story 17 V´ıkrama Offers Himself for his Rival’s Benefit 642 Story 18 V´ıkrama Visits the Sun’s Orb 644 Story 19 V´ıkrama Visits Bali, the King of the Underworld 646 Story 20 V´ıkrama Visits a Forest Ascetic 648 Story 21 V´ıkrama Entertained by Personifications of Eight Magic Powers 652 Story 22 V´ıkrama Wins the Science of Alchemy for a Brahmin 654 Story 23 V´ıkrama’s Inauspicious Dream 656 Story 24 Shali·v´ahana, V´ıkrama, and the Nectar of Immortality 658 Story 25 V´ıkrama Obtains Rain from the Goddess 662 Story 26 V´ıkrama and the Cow of Plenty 664 Story 27 V´ıkrama and the Gambler 666 Story 28 V´ıkrama Abolishes the Sacrificing of Men to a Goddess 670 Story 29 The Courtesan Visited by an Ogre 672 Story 30 The Conjurer’s Trick 674 9. In the Sanskrit text, we use French Guillemets (e.g. The chart at the back of each book gives the full sandhi system. But man distinguishes himself by doing his duties; those who neglect them are like beasts.

KING V´IKRAMA’S ADVENTURES 539 Introduction 541 Chapter I Invocation and the Conversation of Shiva and P´arvati 557 Chapter II King Bhartri·hari and the Fruit of Immortality or How V´ıkrama Became King 565 Chapter III V´ıkrama Meets a Vampire; He Receives a Throne from Indra for his Help 579 Chapter IV King V´ıkrama’s Death and the Hiding of the Throne 587 Chapter V King Bhoja Finds the Throne 593 Chapter VI Bhoja Attempts to Mount the Throne 601 Story 1 V´ıkrama’s Principle for Giving Alms 604 Story 2 The Brahmin’s Unsuccessful Sacrifice 606 Story 3 The Four Magic Jewels Given by the Sea-God 610 Story 4 V´ıkrama’s Gratitude Tested by a Brahmin 614 Story 5 Two Lifeless Bodies Resurrected by V´ıkrama 616 Story 6 V´ıkrama Gratifies a Lying Ascetic 618 Story 7 The Dilemma of the Jewel-Carrier 620 Story 8 Sacrifice for a Man who was Dedicated to an Ogre 622 Story 9 V´ıkrama Causes a Water Tank to be Filled 624 Story 10 V´ıkrama Obtains a Magic Mantra from an Ascetic 626 8. csl punctuation of sanskrit The Sanskrit text is also punctuated, in accordance with the punc- tuation of the English translation. csl conventions not alter the sandhi or the scansion. Most Sanskrit metres have four “feet” (p¯ada): where possible we print the common ´sloka metre on two lines. This has a parallel in English: a nasal consonant is inserted between two vowels that would otherwise coalesce: “a pear” and “an apple.” Sanskrit vowel fusion may produce ambiguity. For, Eating, sleeping, feeling afraid and copulating—these 0.30 things men have in common with animals. [28] api ca, yad a Abh¯avi na tad bh¯avi, bh¯avi cen na tad anyath¯a.

csl conventions sanskrit alphabetical order Vowels: a ¯a i ¯ı u ¯u r. For that, what is important is to know the form of the second word without sandhi (pre-sandhi), so that it can be recognized or looked up in a dictionary. In this ever-revolving transmigra- tion, who is not ordinarily reborn after death? ca, vidy¯a, nidhanam eva ca— pa˜nc’ ˆait¯any api sr.jyante garbha Asthasy’ ˆaiva dehinah..

a & “King Vikrama’s Adventures” TRANSLATED BY JUDIT T ¨ORZS ¨OK NEW YORK UNIVERSITY PRESS JJC FOUNDATION 4. Friendly advice by N¯ar¯ayan.a & King V´ıkrama’s adventures / translated by T¨orzs¨ok, Judit. (3) Where a word begins with h and the previous word ends with a double consonant, this is our simplified spelling to show the pre-sandhi 14 14. by Padma·gupta Classical Sanskrit literature can abound in puns (´sles.a). Som´eshvara·deva’s “Moonlight of Glory” I.15 16 16. This is the first time that the two works translated here have been published in one single volume, and there are a number of reasons for this marriage. “The Head-offering to the Goddess in Pallava Sculp- ture.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 6 (1930–32), 539–43. Such pa- ronomasia, or wordplay, is raised to a high art; rarely is it a clich´e. Although one work is a book of fables and the other is a collection of tales about a legendary king, they both contain interlinked stories that are in one way or another related to kingship. Notes 1 On Nar´ayana as a poet, see Ingalls 1966: 18. The suggested period of composition is based on the dating and relationship of various recensions of the aphorisms attributed to Chan´akya, which have parallels in the Hitopade´sa. friendly advice and king v´ıkrama’s adventures punning original in the Sanskrit, we use a slanted font (different from italic) and a triple colon (: ) to separate the alternatives. Although they do not date from the same period, they were both redacted after what is often considered the classical age (i.e. 5 Sternbach (1974: 4–5) mentions verses 1.78 and 4.28 of John- son’s edition and an additional verse found only in Schlegel’s edition. , vinay¯ad y¯ati p¯atrat¯am, p¯atratv¯ad dhanam ¯apnoti, dhan¯ad dharmam. A wise man should think about knowledge and money as if he were immune to old age and death; but he shouldperformhisdutiesasif Deathhadalreadyseized him by the hair. after the seventh century ce); and in both cases, the origin of the stories seems to extend back to many centuries before the texts as we have them gained their final shape. “Beneficial Counsel” or “Instruc- tion on What is Good”) gives its reader much more than ‘Friendly Advice.’ Numerous animal fables along with some human stories, tales of adultery and faithfulness, trea- son and loyalty, religious piety and hypocrisy, cleverness and na¨ıve belief, generosity and greed, war and peace are all con- tained in one handy collection. The first, identical with Kale’s 1.77, is not in the oldest 50 46. But this verse can also be found in an almost identical version in the critical edition of the Mah¯abh¯arata (5.37.15). Knowledge is considered superior to everything else, for it can never be taken away, bought or destroyed.

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